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During the 11th century, native state of Venpoli (Venpolinadu) was under the supremacy of the Chera empire.Venpoli was made up of modern Vaikkom, Moovattupuzha, Kanjirapally and Thodupuzha. Kaduthuruthi was its capital. At the end of 11th century the conquest by the Cholas lead to the decline of Chera paved way for the independence of smaller states like Venpolinadu. Power struggles within Venpoli dynasty lead to the formation of Karikodu, Vadakumkoor and Thekkumkoor. Thekkumkoor state came into existence in AD1103 with Manikantapuram as its capital.Modern Kottayam was then known as Munjanadu whose capital was Thaliyilkotta consisting of Kottayam and Ettumanoor which was annexed to Thekkumkoor state and Vennimala was made region’s capital. But due to many reasons capital was again shifted back to Thaliyilkotta. During those times human civilization was based on river banks and the banks of river Meenachil began to develop trade routes with Kochi and Kozhikode states. Soon markets like Pazhayachanda (Old bazaar), Valiaangady (Big bazaar) began to flourish.